THE FIND OF ANCIENT COINS IN THE TIASMYN RIVER BASIN FROM THE SIXTH TO THE FIRST CENTURY BC
The purpose of the article is to investigate and systematize coin finds from the sixth to the first century BC in the Tiasmyn river basin and surrounding areas and to bring new finds into scientific circulation. Theoretical and methodological background of the investigation consists of the complexity of general scientific and numismatic methods which are, above all, determined by the existence of corpus of sources and its assessment of credibility or unreliability. Scientific novelty. The researchers of the history of the Dnieper Right Bank Forest-steppe of the first millennia BC divide in a separate group southern, border steppe territory, and the basin of the river Tiasmyn with adjacent territories within Kiev-Cherkassy region. The geographical scope of this group includes river Tiasmyn system in the present Cherkassy region and the territory where feeder from the headwaters of Tiasmyn are close to the right bank tributaries of the Southern Bug system (Hirskyi Tikych and Syniukha) and headwaters of Inhul and Inhulets in the northern part of the Kirovograd region. For the recent decades there can be observed a significant increasing in the number of the known coin finds of the state ancient Greek formations on the settlement of the sixth to the first century BC, which were found in the Tiasmyn river basin as well as overall in Dnieper-Right-Bank-Forest-steppe territory and including coins from the antique city-states of the Northern Black Sea region, such as Olbia, Panticapaeum, Chersonesus, Kerkinitis, Tyras and coins from other Ancient Greek city- states. Although generalized complex investigation of the coin finds of the sixth to the first century BC in the Tiasmyn river basin and surrounding areas are not present, which caused appealing of the author to this topic and writing the article. Main results of the research. The Population that had been living on the territory of the Dnieper Right Bank Forest-steppe, including Tiasmyn river basin from sixth to the first century BC had economic relations with Greece antique world including Olbia. This is evidenced by the significant amount of the numismatic sources in the occupation earth of the settlements. In this case it is presented by the coins from the ancient Greek state formations, which were lost by their owners.
The author had analysed 167 ancient coins, which were found in the Tiasmyn basin and had compiled a corresponding Сatalogue. Information about the finds of these coins located in diverse sources: museum collections, above mentioned researcher studies, evidence of area studies specialists, and materials on the forums of the treasure hunters. Analysing 167 coins finds from the sixth to the first century BC on the Tiasmyn river basin area it is possible to highlight 23 points of such coin finds concentration. There are 19 settlements where had been found more than 1 coin and 4 settlements were had been found monetary treasures nearby. All this gives grounds for suggestion that these coins were involved in goods-money relations of the local inhabitants with Greeks. It is conceivable that this level of relations was not developed to the degree that Greek colonies of in the Northern Black Sea region had. These finds indicate economic, including trade relations of the population from the Tiasmyn river basin with the ancient world, which had developed monetary circulation. Nearly 75 per cent constitute coins from Olbia. Coins are divided by the types and coinage periods for «Dolphins» (end of the sixth century beginning of the fourth century BC) they are 23 coins, «Reduced Asses» (c. 400-380 BC) are represented by 5 coins, «Chalk» (400-370 BC), «Dichalk» (380-360 BC), «Chalk» (360-350 BC) are represented by 11 coins, «Obol» with Demeter and city emblem (350-330 BC) account for 3 coins, 2 small coin with the head of Demeter (the end of the sixth century BC), «Borysthenes» (end of the sixth century – 20s of the third century BC) number 78 coins. Coins from Chersonesus constitute 4,19 per cent (4 coins of the fourth century BC, 2 coins of the beginning of the third century BC and 1 coin of the middle of the first century BC). Panticapaeum coins accounted for 2.99 per cent, all these coins are dated by the end of the sixth century BC. An insignificant number of Panticapaeum coins which were found in the Tiasmyn river basin in comparison with Olbian coins, call into thesis of some researchers that Olbia had lost its lead role in trade with barbarians in sixth century BC and it was being replaced with Bosporus. Even the coins from the Makedonia, that was located far from Dnieper-Right-Bank-Forest-steppe amount 3,59 per cent (all the coins of the sixth century BC). The electrum staters from the Cyzicus city of Asia Minor constitute a rather significant per cent of finds. They are estimated at 8.38 per cent and played a major role in Mediterranean and Black Sea trade. If to talk about the coins minted in the second century BC, it is known only find of coin by the ruler Bithynia Prusias I Cholus, that was found in the Tiasmyn river basin, it is consistent with the coins minted circa 228-182 BC, so the end of the third century- the beginning of the second century BC. However, the near absence among finds coins dated second century BCE can demonstrate the leading role of Olbia in trade with the barbarian population of the Dnieper Right-Bank Forest-Steppe, including, in particular, trade with the population from the Tiasmyn river basin in the previous chronological period. In fact, Olbia got through the Skyro-Galatic Invasion in the end of the third century BC, and the second century BC was rather difficult period in political and economic life of this Greece colony in northern-west Black Sea region. Numismatical sources, specifically coin finds confirm thesis that relationships of Olbia with Barbarian tribes of Northern Black Sea region decreased to the minimum. Recovery of economic relations of ancient Greeks with population of the Tiasmyn river basin happened after the entry of Olbia and other Greek colonies of the Northern Black Sea region to Kingdom of Pontus of Mithridates Eupator, that was confirmed by coin finds. The perspective of further research. The problem has been raised by us is complex and multifaceted, it requires further research, and above all, to reveal information about other finds of antique coins in this and other regions of the Dnieper Right-Bank Forest-Steppe in the period from the sixth to the first century BC.
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