• Mykola Nikolaev Doctor of Historical Science (Dr. Hab. in History), Professor Department of history and the methods of its study Izmail State University for the Humanities (Izmail, Ukraine)
Keywords: Olbia, chora, invasion, Scyros & Galatians, “Borysthenes”, treasures, chronology, interpretation.


The problem of the chronology of the Olbian «Borysthenes» still remains unsolved. To the greatest extent this applies to the date of the cessation of minting of these coins. Analysis of recent research and publications. Thus, according to A. N. Zograf, the last four lightweight groups of «Borysthenes» were minted in the 230 and 220 BC P. O. Karyshkovsky first attributed the completion of the minting of these coins to the 250 BC, later - until 240-230 BC. According to V. A. Anokhin, the minting of «Borysthenes» was completed in 280 BC. E. Ya. Turovsky attributes this event to 270 BC. e., and V. F. Stolba - until 275 BC. Our prosopographic study of differents of the «Borysthenes» of all groups (ie their interpretation by the names of real historical figures on the basis of a synchronized eponymous catalog), confirmed the previously proposed chronology and allowed to obtain a scheme that coincides with the scheme of P. O. Karyshkovsky on the first groups, and according to A. N. Zograf - in the chronology of the last four groups. According to our study, the minting of «Borysthenes» took place from 331-330 BC for at least 110 years with significant breaks; the completion of their issue dates back to 220-218 BC, or even to 217-216 BC. In general, the proposed model, both in terms of chronology and prosopography of coin magistrates, is a result of our basic research platform - synchronized eponymous catalog IPE I2 201 - and is a single interdependent system with lapidary inscriptions, graffiti, legends of agoranoms weights and ceramic inscriptions, magic lists, coin legends, etc.

At the same time, the treasures of the «Borysthenes» (which contain, in particular, coins of the later groups) have been published to date, connected with the collapse of the Olbia Chora, and their publishers date no later than 250-240 BC, or even 280 – 275 BC. In other cases, the dating of the treasures is tied to supposedly synchronous (300-275 BC) Pantikapaion coins, which are present together with «Borysthenes». Thus, significant chronological discrepancies were found between the dating of the «Borysthenes» treasures, which have been published in recent years, and the chronological model of minting we have built, which is part of a single chronological and prosopographic system of Olbia IV-I centuries BC. Accordingly, our proposed chronological model requires additional historical justification. The purpose of the paper is to study the chronology and historical circumstances of the collapse of the Right Bank Chora of Olbia in the III century BC, accompanied by a mass burying of the treasures of «Borysthenes». Research methodology – typical scientific methods in combination with the author’s own scientific work by synchronization of the eponyms catalogue IPE I2 201 (calendar) and Olbia’s prosopography, also, comparative paleography. Scientific novelty. On the basis of prosopography and comparative paleography, for the first time, a precision date of issuance of the IPE I2 32 decree in honor of Protogenes, (up to several years), was proposed. The date of the collapse of the Right Bank Chora of Olbia as a result of the invasion of the Scyros & Galatians, which was accompanied by a burying of the treasures of the «Borysthenes», has been clarified. The chronology of minting «Borysthenes», proposed by us in 2014–2020 through the study of their differents on the basis of synchronization of the eponymous catalog IPE I2 201, has been confirmed. Conclusions. 1. The traditional date dominates in science, of the collapse of the Right Bank Chora of Olbia (middle – beginning of the third quarter of the III century BC) established by V.V. Ruban on the basis of the chronological scheme of minting of «Borysthenes» of P. O. Karishkovsky (1968 year). At the same time, there are no other chronological indicators of the collapse of the Olbian Chora in the middle of the III century BC, in addition to the chronology of minting «Borysthenes» by P. O. Karyshkovsky. 2. Leading scholars have linked the demise of the Right Bank Chora to the invasion of the Scyros & Galatians, which is mentioned in decree IPE I2 32 in honor of Protogenes. Even in the time of V.V. Latyshev it is known that this decree is an absolute palaeographic analogue of the wall-building inscription IPE I2 180 of Cleombrot Pantaklus. According to the synchronization of the eponymous catalog IPE I2 201 Cleombrot Pantaclus performed eponymy in 222 BC. Thus, the dating of the decree in honor of Protogenes and the wall-building inscription of Cleombrot Pantaclus near to 222 BC. Both monuments describe the threat of the Scyros-Galatians invasion (inscription IPE I2 180 of Cleombrot Pantaklus – indirectly), which occurred several years later. Our proposed date of cessation of the minting of «Borysthenes» (220-218 BC or even 217-216 BC) for several years precedes the Scyros-Galatian invasion, respectively, in the treasures of «Borysthenes» there are coins and the last groups. Our main conclusion is that the collapse of the Right Bank Chora of Olbia and the hoarding of the treasures of the «Borysthenes» (with the latter groups inclusive) was caused by threat , mentioned in the decree in honor of Protogenes, which realised took place around the middle of the penultimate decade of the III century. BC (not the middle of the III century BC!) invasion of the Scyros-Galatians 3. The existence of treasures formed from «Borysthenes» mainly of the first group, confirms the existence of a chronological break in the minting of the first and second groups. 4. The presence of silver stators of the late IV century. BC as part of the treasure of «Borysthenes» is not a chronological indicator, but only evidence of their circulation until the penultimate decade of the III century BC, (as believe by P.O. Karishkovsky). 5. The presence of coins of Pantikapaion of the end of IV - the first quarter of III century BC in some treasures of «Borysthenes» is not a chronological indicator. These coins were in circulation for at least 250 years until the time of Mithridates VI of Eupator. 6. Finds of «Borysthenes» treasures on the territory or district of a settlement are not unambiguous evidence of the date of their hoarding on the date of collapse of this settlement. In particular, the treasures of the «Borysthenes», hoarded near the crossings (Kapulivka, Ruska Kosa) date near to 215 BC, (not 275 BC, according to their publishers). 7. Icreased wear of coins of early groups in treasures in comparison with the new state of «Borysthenes» of the last groups (see, for example, treasures from Kapulivka, Ruska Kosa), testifies to duration of process of issue of «Borysthenes».


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