TWO FINDS OF THE PODILLIA HALF-GROSZES IN LVIV REGION
The article discuss two new finds in the Lviv region of coins of the Podillia principality, minted on behalf of Prince Konstantin Koriatyvych. One Podillia half-grosz was found in the Busk district near the Poltva river, and the second coin was accidentally found in the Zolochiv district of the Lviv region. It is noteworthy that these two districts are neighboring and during the existence of these coins formed the border between Galicia and Podillia. The most probable reason for the discovery of these coins in this area can be explained by the desire of Podillia merchants to sell their goods on the border with the Galicia-Volyn state, because to take them to Lviv through the warehouse right granted to the city was unprofitable. It is known that the main powerful direction of trade in Lviv was the Crimea, trade was carried out through the shopping centers of Podillia. This route of movement of the goods of Lviv merchants is confirmed by the findings of Lviv coins, distributed along the trade routes from Lviv to Moldavia and Kafa. Exotic goods from distant Venice, Persia, China and Alexandria came to Lviv via Kafa, Sudak and Belgorod. Further movement of goods took place to Krakow, Gdansk, Prague and Regensburg.
Among the coin finds in Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk and Ternopil regions – minted in Lviv, Prague and Polish coins predominate. There are no common treasures of Lviv coins with the Golden Horde coins. In Ivano-Frankivsk region, together with Lviv, Moldovan money was hidden, and in Ternopil region – the so-called «Kyiv imitations» and Podillia coins. In the Chernivtsi region, along with Lviv and Prague coins, Golden Horde dirhams and Moldavian coins were found. Among the Moldavian – coins of the Stephen the Great, which confirms the existence of a trade route from Lviv to the Crimea through the Moldavian lands, starting from the last decades of the XIV century. In Khmelnytsky and Vinnytsia oblasts, finds with Lviv coins show an impressive presence of coins of different monetary systems. Podillia became an important international exchange of goods, which is reflected in the deposition of coins in treasures. In Ternopil, Khmelnytsky and Vinnytsia oblasts, 2,594 Lviv coins accounted for 1,650 coins of Casimir III, Wladyslaw of Opole and Louis of Hungary (from 1350-1380) and 944 coins and half-groszes of Władysław Jagiello, minted in Lviv during 1387-1412. The predominance of coins of Casimir III, Wladyslaw of Opole and Louis of Hungary fits into the assertion that in their time trade routes to the Crimea via Podillia were the main ones. Among the 263 Lviv coins of the 14th century found in the Cherkasy region, only three coins with the name of Wladyslav Jagiello, that is, in the last decades of the 14th century. Lviv merchants hardly reached the Dnieper. They stopped in Podolia, where they bought all the necessary oriental goods. Finds of Lviv silver coins allow us to establish that since the end of the 1380s Podillia lands have been in the center of trade transactions. If before they were a transit territory, now they have become the most important transshipment point in trade with the east. In the end, this eventually led to the minting of a small Podillia coin (half a fraction of Prague money common in Eastern and Central Europe) to meet the needs of a lively local market.
The vast majority of Podillia half-groszes recorded by Igor Yakovelis in joint treasures with Lviv coins were found in the Khmelnytsky region. Only one – in Ternopil, 7 pcs. in Vinnytsia and 2 pcs. in the Cherkassy region. The fact that the finds of Podillia coins are localized, mostly in the Khmelnytsky region and partly in the Vinnytsia region, indicates that the reason for their minting was the service of rapid trade right here, in the transshipment point on the way of oriental goods. The two Podillia half-groszes from the Lviv region put into scientific circulation may indicate that the Podillia merchants arrived with their goods (probably also of eastern origin) on the border of the Podillia principality and Galician Rus’. In fact, they did not invent a new route, but used the old «Tatar road» that led from Lviv to Zolochiv, Terebovlia and Kamyanets. Along this path, the two most western finds of Podillia coins were recorded – in Zolochiv and Busk districts.
Bakalets, O. (2017) Skarby Podillia XIV – seredyny XVII st. Dokumenty ta materialy: istoryko-numizmatychne doslidzhennia. [Treasures of Podillya of the 14th – middle of the 17th centuries. Documents and materials: historical and numismatic research]. Bar – Vinnytsia – Kamianets-Podilskyi – Khmelnytskyi – Kyiv. [in Ukrainian].
Khromov, K. K. (2019) Blukaiuchy shliakhamy «Via tartarica». (problemy vyznachennia torhovykh shliakhiv dzhuchydskoi doby na terenakh suchasnoi Ukrainy). [Wandering along the roads «Via Tatarica» (Problems of determining the trade routes of the Juchid era in the territory of modern Ukraine)]. Ukrainskyi numizmatychnyi shchorichnyk [The Ukrainian numismatic annual]. 3. 53-66. DOI: 10/31470/2616-6275-2019-3-53-66. [in Ukrainian].
Kryzhanivskyi, A. (2019) Monety Halytskoi Rusy XIV–XV stolit. [Coins of Galician Rus XIV–XV centuries]. Lviv. [in Ukrainian].
Lelewel, J. (1843) Guillebert de Lannoy et ses voyages en 1413, 1414 et 1421, commenés en français et en polonaise [Guillebert de Lannoy and his travels in 1413, 1414 and 1421, begun in French and in Polish]. Poznań. [in French].
Markevich, V. & Polevoj, A. & Fin Sh. (1960) Kugureshtskij monetno-veshhevoj klad. Gosudarstvennyj istoriko-kraevedcheskij muzej MSSR. Trudy. [Kuguresht coin and clothing treasure. State Museum of History and Local Lore of the MSSR]. Kishinev. [in Russian].
Mykhailovskyi, V. (2012) Elastychna spilnota. Podilska shliakhta v druhii polovyni XIV – 70 rr. XVI st. [Elastic community. Podolsk gentry in the second half of the XIV – 70 years of the XVI century.]. Kyiv. [in Ukrainian].
Ohui, O. (2009) Istoriia obihu hroshovykh odynyts ta yikh naimenuvan na Bukovyni. [History of currency circulation and their denominations in Bukovyna]. Chernivtsi. [in Ukrainian].
Orlyk, V. (2017) Topohrafiia znakhidok v Ukraini monet derzhavy Tevtonskoho ordenu v Prussii ta yii Livonskoho viddilennia (zvedeni vidomosti po oblastiakh). [The toporgaphy of the finds of the Teutonic Order in Prussia and it’s Livonian branch coins in Ukraine (general data through the regions)]. Ukrainskyi numizmatychnyi shchorichnyk, 1, 37-74. [in Ukrainian].
Orlyk, V. M. (2018) Numizmatychni svidchennia torhovelnykh ta viiskovykh zviazkiv ruskykh zemel Velykoho kniazivstva Lytovskoho z derzhavoiu Tevtonskoho ordenu u Prussii. [Numismatic relics of trading and military relations of the Russian lands of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the state of the Teutonic Order in Prussia]. Visnyk Kyivskoho natsionalnoho universytetu imeni Tarasa Shevchenka. Seryia: Istoriia [Bulletin of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv. History series]. 1 (136). 54-59. [in Ukrainian].
Shostopal, A. (2007) Skarby Cherkashchyny. [The treasures of the Cherkassy region]. Cherkasy. [in Ukrainian].
Shostopal, A. (2017–2018) Rol i mistse ruskykh hroshykiv u hroshovomu obihu Serednoho Podniprovia v XIV – XV stolittiakh. [The role and place of n money in the money circulation of the Middle Dnieper in the XIV – XV centuries]. Lvivski Numizmatychni Zapysky. [The Lviv Numismatic Notes]. (14-15). 19 – 23. [in Ukrainian].
Swieżawski, А. (1990) Ziemia bełska. Wykaz dziejów politycznych. [Belz Land. List of political history]. Częstochowa, 1990 r. [in Polish].
Voitovych, L. (2019). Uhorshchyna i Polshcha v borotbi za spadshchynu Romanovychiv (1340–1434): vytoky, podii, naslidky. [Hungary and Poland in the struggle for the legacy of the Romanovs (1340-1434): origins, events, consequences]. Ukrainsko-uhorski etiudy [Ukrainian-Hungarian studies]. 3. 249. [in Ukrainian].
Yakovelis, I. (2019) Novi znakhidky monet Lvivskoho monetnoho dvoru. Monety Halytskoi Rusy XIV–XV stolit. [New finds of coins of the Lviv Mint. Coins of Galician Rus XIV–XV centuries]. Lviv. [in Ukrainian].
Yelnikov, M. (2008) Zolotoordynski chasy na ukrainskykh zemliakh. [Golden Horde times in the Ukrainian lands]. Kyiv. [in Ukrainian].