RUSSIAN COPPER COIN IN MONETARY CIRCULATION OF THE RIGHT-BANK UKRAINE IN THE XVIII CENTURY. (NUMISMATIC FINDINGS OF 2017 FROM TRUSHKY, BILA TSERKVA REGION)
Actual for the Ukrainian numismatics problem of using a copper coin of the Moscow kingdom and the Russian Empire in the money turnover of Right-Bank Ukraine during XVIII century is studied on the basis of newly discovered numismatic sources. The results of field numismatic research in 2017 in Trushky (Bila Tserkva Region) conducted within the framework of the initiative scientific program of the educational and scientific laboratory of examination of cultural-historical values of the Original and Special Historical Sciences of the Faculty of History Education
(National Pedagogical Dragomanov University) are represented. A set of 26 Russian copper coins of small denominations of the XVIII century is analyzed, attributed and classified in the article. The coins minted during the reign of Peter I (1696–1725), Anna of Russia (1730–1740), Elizabeth of Russia (1741–1761), Catherine the Great (1762–1796) and Paul I of Russia (1796–1801) were found on the site of a synchronous in time ancient rural building. The author proposed his own vision of the place and role of the Russian copper coin in the monetary circulation of the territories of the Southern Kyiv region bordered by Russia during the investigated period according to the analysis of new numismatic sources and the tendencies of the monetary emission policy of the Commonwealth and Russia at the end of the seventeenth and mid-eighteenth centuries according to the analysis of new numismatic sources and the tendencies of the monetary emission policy of the Commonwealth and Russia at the end of the seventeenth and mid-eighteenth centuries. It is alleged that internal military-political instability in the Commonwealth was caused by the beginning of the Great Northern War 1700–1721, the Swedish occupation (1702), the Cossack-peasant uprising led by S. Paliy (1700-1704) and contributed to the strengthening of Russian military-political influence in the RightBank Ukraine. The Russian presence began here in 1704 with intervention under the pretext of suppressing “Paliivshchyna” and was updated during the reign of,
Anna of Russia, Elizabeth of Russia, Catherine the Great. Significant reduction in the scale of coinage in the Commonwealth during the reign of Augustus II the Strong (1697–1733) and Augustus III of Poland (1734–1763) contributed to the spread of the Russian coins in the money market of the Right-Bank Ukraine. Under such conditions, since the beginning of the century, the Russian coin gradually became a significant factor in the money circulation of the Right Bank, and especially its territories on border with the Hetmanate. Given these circumstances the author partly corrected the conclusion of the famous Ukrainian numismatist M. Kotlyar about the superiority of the Polish-Lithuanian coin on the Right-Bank Ukraine during the entire XVIIІ century. The author shares opinion of his colleague only with regard to the money market of high-grade silver and gold coins of large denominations. The situation with the modest coin on the border areas with Russia – the territories of the Right Bank, in particular in the Middle Porossya, was somewhat different. As a result, the crisis of coin production in the early 18th century in the Commonwealth, coinage, in particular, small silver and exchangeable copper coins, had decreased substantially. On the Polish and Western Ukrainian lands, the lack of its own coinage was covered by the inflow of money from European countries, primarily Sweden and the Brandenburg-Prussia state. In the Right Bank Ukraine, the Russian copper coin, which coinage in this period becomes significant, occupied a stronger position in monetary circulation. The volume of the small Polish-Lithuanian coin in the monetary circulation of the region significantly decreased and this niche immediately filled the coin of Russian coinage. Because of intensive cross-border trade, migration processes and strengthening Russia’s political presence on the territory of Poland and Lithuania since 30’s and 40’s of the XVIII century in the retail trade on the territory of the Right-bank Ukraine, in particular in the territory of the Southern Kyiv region, the imperial copper coin was widely used. Ultimately, the Russian coin had taken over the money market of the Right-Bank Ukraine in the last years of the reign of Catherine the Great (1762-1796) as a result of the final liquidation of the statehood of the Commonwealth. A characteristic feature of almost all found coins is their significant wear out, which may indicate the active use of these coins as a payment, primarily in the small trade by the local population. The published results of the author’s research are based on the data of the local group of numismatic sources and require verification with the use of time synchronous monetary material from other settlements of the region, which creates a prospect for further research on the problem.
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