NEW FINDINGS OF SCANDINAVIAN COINS IX–XI CENTURIES AT THE TERRITORY OF UKRAINE
The aim of the study – is presentation of a new findings of Scandinavian coins
ІХ-ХІ centuries at the territory of Ukraine. Research methodology – principles of historicism, generalization, historical-typological, comparative analyzis. Scientific novelty. Author is using information published at the Violiti auction forum site to study finding of Western European denarii in Ukraine. Violiti auction forum is the specific site to post images of findings coins for their attribution. Many of published coins were found as a result of amateur searches using metal detector. The lack of legal regulation of such activities creates many problems regarding scientific studies and publication of these coins data. Author agrees with positive and negative aspects of using “black archaeologists” activities results in numismatics, as it was stated in the publication of Professor V. Kotsur. He supports V. Kotsur’s thesis that information about found sub-European denarii can significantly change our ideas about money circulation in Kyievan Rus at the initial stage of so-called “coin-less period”. Now based on data published at forum site it can be concluded that in the 11th century Western European denarii possessed much larger role at historical Ukrainian lands of Old Rus than was previously thought.
It is necessary to agree with these words of the scientist, in particular, concerning the issue of circulation of European denarii in the southern and southwestern lands of Kievan Rus. Thus, until recently, the numismatic literature was dominated by the opinion that “at the beginning of the” non-monetary period “of the history of monetary circulation of Ancient Russia, Western European denarii played a role in the market. However, their share in the structure of the coinage of Ukrainian lands was insignificant. “Undoubtedly, the role of these denarii was less quantitatively compared to the circulation of Arab dirhams in the X - first quarter of the XI centuries. However, the findings of English, German denarii, denarii of other lands in recent years are so significant that one can still testify to their greater role in the circulation of money in Ukraine at that time. Also known in our country are the coin complexes of medieval European denars, some of which are published. The findings of fake Western European denarii are also isolated, which also indicates the spread of such coins in the southern territories of Kievan Rus.
The publication discusses new Scandinavian coins finding in Ukraine, classified by countries of origination. Among Danish coins distinguished finding are represented by the Ribe city denarius issued in 820–850, a fragment of the Hedeby city half-bracteate with solar symbol, denarius of King of Denmark and King of England Harthacanute with image of the World Serpent. Five coins of the king Sven Estridsen also were founded. Findings of Swedish coins are represented by Olof Skötkonung’s denarius with rare and unusual depiction of crosses on both sides, and a coin of this King with the abbreviation denoting «Divine Sigtuna».Findings of Norwegian denarii were not previously recorded in Ukraine at all. Having found of «triquetra type pennies» denarius of King Harald Hardrada is valuable information. Author is suggesting relation of finding one-sided denarius with Norwegian mint by times of Olaf III Haraldsson, byname Olaf the Quiet. The Conclusions. Thus, author concludes, we can state Scandinavian coins presence in southern part of Kyivan Rus monetary circulation. Total number of coins minted in Scandinavia was insignificant compared to coins minted at other Western European states. This may indirectly indicate high level of Western European denarii usage intensity as means of payment in Ukrainian territories of those times.
Some data show that such denarii were in circulation in southern Russia in the third quarter of the XI century. This is evidenced by the findings of the coins of the Danish King Sven Estridsen, whose reign dates to this very time. In this aspect, the denarius complex from Rivne region is interesting. In addition to the coins of the first half of the XI century, it contains two coins of Sven Estridsen, a penny of the English King Edward the Confessor, an imitation of the penny of this king probably in the second half of the XI century, as well as coins of the Byzantine emperor Constantine X Duca (1059–1067). Therefore, the thesaurus of the complex can be attributed to the third quarter of the XI century or even later. That is, at this time were in circulation denarius, minted in the first quarter of the XI century. It should be noted that the presence of coins of the first half of the XI century with denarius of the third quarter of this century is not so frivolous. This, in our opinion, increases the time period of circulation of Western European denars on historical Ukrainian lands until the beginning of the XII century. And he answers the questions that silver coins Vladimir Monomakh ordered to throw into the crowd in 1115.
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